Normal and Atypical Development By: They organize this information in their minds, and code it in ways that keep it usable and easily understood. They match the information with what they've learned before, noticing similarities and differences, and store the information for future use.
Our review of the literature revealed a number of critical research areas that are receiving much attention in research and practice. The purpose of this section is to highlight these critical areas, as well as to suggest directions for future research.
The areas discussed in this section are: Forging connections with families from culturally diverse backgrounds Connecting families with schools in homework help Connecting school, family, and community for effective school reform Connecting school, family, and community through developmental approaches and integrated service delivery Connecting school, family, and community to support transitions throughout the education system Developing process-based approaches to make connections Preparing educators and other school personnel to make connections between schools, families, and communities Within each of the areas listed above, both promising directions and research needs within the area will be discussed.
The promising directions sections center on the new thinking and research that have begun to emerge in the field. For each of these promising directions, key ideas are presented, as well as suggestions for ways that the field can continue to build on the research that is currently taking place. The research needs sections discuss gaps or inconsistencies in the current thinking and research that require additional research in the future.
By beginning to address these research needs, the field can begin to develop more conclusive evidence to support the development of successful school, family, community connections.
Forging Connections with Families from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds Connecting with families from diverse backgrounds has been a subject of interest, debate, and research. The importance of reaching out to diverse families has become even more evident as greater accountability policies are implemented and schools are held responsible for ensuring that all children are educated to high standards.
Based on our review of the literature, the following topics are promising directions that have emerged in the field or are areas in which further research is needed to build conclusive evidence. Promising Directions Strategies of diverse families whose children are successful in school Research has begun to explore the involvement patterns of parents from diverse cultural backgrounds whose children have been successful in the school system.
Another study Yan, found that families of successful African American students possessed average or above average social capital measured by parent-teen interactions, parent-school interactions, parent-parent interactions, and family norms and equal or higher levels of school contact than successful white students and non-successful African American families.
A recent study of Hispanic high-performing schools by Scribner et al. Involvement patterns of diverse families that are culturally specific or different from mainstream involvement activities Research is also beginning to document the ways in which cultural minority parents interact with their children that support learning, yet differ from more mainstream or middle class approaches Cairney, ; Yonezawa, The strategies documented in this body of research reflect the cultural practices of the home that support success in school.
Further research is needed to delve deeply into the connections that diverse families create that traditional indicators do not recognize and to consider the reasons why some diverse families might not be involved in the more traditional ways.
Building a body of knowledge about the specific practices of various cultural groups can support the validation of those practices by school personnel and may support the sharing of effective practices across cultural groups.
Research Needs The effect of family characteristics on family-school connections Researchers have explored the effects that family characteristics such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and cultural background have on family involvement in education, yet the body of research reviewed for this synthesis still presents an unclear picture.
Some studies have found that these variables are not factors, and that non-majority families are as involved as majority families when they are given opportunities to be involved Kohl et al.
Others have found family characteristics to be a significant factor affecting the level, extent, and forms of involvement Carey et al. Further research is needed to understand how or if family characteristics affect family involvement. A better understanding of the perceptions that different groups hold would support the development of appropriate outreach and involvement strategies.
Recently, Hoover-Dempsey et al. Promising Directions New concepts of homework help Hoover-Dempsey et al. Their work suggests new ways to conceptualize homework help and understand its impact on student outcomes. Parent training for homework help Hoover-Dempsey et al. One promising strategy emerging in the literature for involving parents effectively in homework help seems to be providing training to parents on subject-specific strategies that they can implement at home that support student learning Faires et al.
Future research can build understanding of how to most effectively train parents to ensure that they have the skills to provide homework help. Interactive homework assignments The development of interactive homework assignments homework that requires parent-child interaction as part of the activity has also shown promise as a way of supporting parent involvement and student achievement.
Homework activities that are explicitly designed to encourage interaction between parents and children have shown positive results for increasing achievement in several subject areas, including science and language arts Epstein et al.
Van Voorhis suggests that well-designed interactive assignments can have a number of positive outcomes: Future research can continue to build understanding of the kinds of interactive assignments that best foster parent involvement and student achievement.
Research Needs Effects of parental help style One ongoing concern seems to be with issues of parenting style and how it impacts the type and effect of the help parents provide. Further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between parenting style, homework help and the outcomes that are produced.
Greatest Achievements of Mankind. A list of great achievements of Humanity. Declaration of Human Rights. After centuries of religious persecution, injustice and disregard for human rights, the acceptance of human rights enshrined in law is one of the great achievements of modern history. About the Book. Greek and Latin Roots: Part I - Latin is part one of a two part schwenkreis.com series examines the systematic principles by which a large portion of English vocabulary has evolved from Latin and (to a lesser degree) from Greek. Ancient Greece essaysAthens A "Golden Age" for Athens? The 5th century BCE was a period of great development in Ancient Greece, and specifically in Athens. The development of so many cultural achievements within Athens and the Athenian Empire has .
School support of parental homework help Hoover-Dempsey et al. These topics for research are particularly important in light of findings that many parents assume that they should be involved in homework and value specific guidance for involvement from schools and teachers.
This occurs across socioeconomic, ethnic, and geographic groups.
These authors suggest that although parents express positive feelings about homework, they have concerns about homework, their limitations in subject-matter knowledge, and effective helping strategies.Dani Clark is helping pave the way for Greek life leadership.
A senior in journalism and electronic media, Danielle “Dani” Clark always knew she wanted to go into journalism. What she didn’t always know was that she would be a part of Greek life. Native of Tampa, Florida, Clark knew no one on. The cultural achievements of the classical Greeks during the “Golden Age” are so numerous that they set many of the basic standards for Western civilization.
Greece was divided into several city-states, of which Athens and Sparta are the most well-known. Minoan Art. What has survived to our day from Minoan art provides insight into the culture that flourished in Crete during Prehistoric times.
The art of the Minoans speak of a society of joyous disposition, in touch with their environment, and in awe of the logical order of the natural world. The development of so many cultural achievements within Athens and the Athenian Empire has led scholars to deem this period a "Golden Age." It is true that his period had many achievements, but in the light of the Athenians treatment of women, metics (non-Athenians living in Athens), and slaves it is given to question whether or not the period.
About the Book. Greek and Latin Roots: Part I - Latin is part one of a two part schwenkreis.com series examines the systematic principles by which a large portion of English vocabulary has evolved from Latin and (to a lesser degree) from Greek.
The Mississippian Period in the midwestern and southeastern United States, which lasted from about A.D. to , saw the development of some of the .