Increasingly, the DTM is being used by young guns such as Robert Wickens and Gary Paffett to jump-start their racing career in single-seaters. Wickens was in the Mercedes young driver program and in his first year of DTM.
Land inheritance in Scotland I'll be writing a book soon for Unlock the Past www. When Scots died in the past, their assets comprised of moveable and immoveable goods - things pinned down and things not pinned down - or the house, as an example, on one hand, and its contents on the other. Houses and land fell into the 'immoveable' or 'heritable' goods category, and prior to could not be directly bequeathed in a will, unlike the rest of the British Isles, thanks to Scots Law dealing with the matter in a different way to English Law.
There were exceptions, such as 'trust dispositions' from the 19th century on, but let's not muddy the water just yet! If you couldn't leave land in a will then, it had to be disposed of in a separate manner. Until primogeniture operated in Scotland, the right of the eldest son to inherit land and property, and his dad's coats of arms etc.
In the past, the way that the formal inheritance of land worked involved the heir having to prove that he and sometimes she was the legitimate heir of the deceased, but how you did that depended on who your 'feudal superior' was.
We had a very long, complicated and brilliantly fascinating land system based on feudalism untilwhich basically ensured that there was a long chain of people looking after land through a web of supervision all the way back up to God. Here's the definition of feudalism in a nutshell - God was a busy chap, so let the monarch look after Scotland for him - except he was too busy off shooting wild boar and grouse.
In return they paid him a tribute for the privilege, which was known as a 'feu duty' - this initially comprised of them volunteering some of their tenants to go off and get hacked to death on the king's behalf when he lost his temper with an enemy or two.
Later everyone realised paying a sum of money would be a lot more civilised and would save on the body count - the king could also now just buy boar and grouse with the proceeds, so turned his attention to shooting deer and pheasants not to be confused with 'peasants' instead.
The nobles were also fairly busy, so they in turn kept on carving up their territories into smaller portions, with those looking after the land on their behalf giving them a feu duty also, which the nobles would pass part of back to the king.
The land was in turn divided again and again until it became impossible to carve up further unless you are my eldest son, who in apparently became the laird of one square foot of the Isle of Islay! As long as the feu duties kept passing up the chain, everyone was happy.
Feudalism was not the only way that land was managed in Scotland, but was almost universally the main method until finally abolished in Lots of land was 'feued' directly from the Crown - in which case the Crown was the feudal superior i. Other lands were feued from one of a series of middle men beneath the king, as described above, who were known as 'subject superiors' or 'intermediate lawful superiors'.
So how you formally inherited land - who you had to prove your entitlement to inherit to - depended very much on whether your superior was the Crown or a subject superior. The first thing to note though is that when someone died, the heir actually immediately became what was legally known as an apparent heir, and had certain rights from the start.
He or she could actually take possession of the property immediately, and assume various responsibilities for debts etc. The problem was an apparent heir could not pass on the property himself unless he completed the process of inheritance.
That's where the type of superior comes in. If it was one of the middlemen, the subject superiors, all you had to do was to obtain a document from him that showed that he it was mainly a he! However, anytime land was transferred, whether by purchase or by inheritance, it had to be entered into the Registers of Sasines which can be consulted either in Edinburgh or at a local county archive depending on the type of register - again, let's not go there for now!
So usually if land was inherited after a precept of clare constant was issued, you'll find it mentioned in the sasine record. Here's an example of a sasine abridgement that does that: Other documents would be involved possibly also, with Godforsaken names such as writs of clare constat and charters of confirmation, but the bottom line is you'll find evidence for them in the sasine registers, not in some dedicated central register for heirs.
If the Crown was the superior, however, it was a different kettle of fish. You instead had to do something a little different, and go through a process called the Services of Heirs to prove you were the legitimate heir.
This was a jury of local landowners who would take a decision as to whether you were who you said you were. If they agreed, they 'retoured' their decision to the Chancery, and you were recognised as the lawful heir and could take full and formal possession, no longer as just an 'apparent heir'.
There were two types of retour - general retour and special retour, basically dependant on whether the heir was about to be made infeft into land left by his ancestor, or simply needing to be recognised as an heir e. It's also worth noting that the retours were also used to record the appointment of tutors for minors - via 'brieves of tutory' - when they succeeded an ancestor but were too young to take full possession of an estate - but that's another story for another day!
On the whole the retours or services of heirs were indexed in the 19th century, with records from indexed between andand records from indexed in After this they were indexed annually.
The indexes fromas with the later indexes, are available for consultation at the NRS, though it's worth mentioning they aren't quite complete - in the annual index for there are in fact five pages added which contain details of missed entries for material from In , Gurney Construction Company agreed to construct an apartment building at a price of $1,, The information relating to the costs and billings for this contract is shown below.
In , Gurney Construction Company agreed to construct an apartment building at a price of $1,, The information relating to the costs and billings for this contract is shown below. The information relating to the costs and billings for this contract is shown below.
The company estimates that the discovery, unveiled last week, hosts enough natural gas to justify doubling the size of the Kitimat terminal the company is currently proposing.
Official weblog of Author Stephen Swartz: sci-fi trilogy The Dream Land, literary fiction: A Girl Called Wolf, A Dry Patch of Skin. The Cornwall Railway was a 7 ft 1 ⁄ 4 in (2, mm) broad gauge railway from Plymouth in Devon to Falmouth in Cornwall, England, built in the second half of the nineteenth century.
It was constantly beset with shortage of capital for the construction, and was eventually forced to sell its line to the dominant Great Western Railway.
Monthly Archives: July July 14, Examples of rudimentary sentence construction include: “Thirsty, like milk,” and “Lips fake candy give me”. On the one side were the Chomskians; who agreed with the famous linguist Noam Chomsky that only humans have the ability to ‘talk’.